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Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion.The derivation of the word may be from magpie, shortened to pie.The explanation offered in favour or this is that the magpie collects a variety of things, and that it was an essential feature of early pies that they contained a variety of ingredients." ---The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, 2nd edition, Tom Jaine editor [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2006 (p. Pie can be closed, open, small, large, savory or sweet.The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.
Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Medium/medium rare were introduced about this time. Originally only of eggs: slightly or imperfectly cooked, underdone. And indeed, among winged creatures they can eat with pleasure wood pigeons still running with blood and scarcely touched by fire.' Bruyerin advocated the middle way, warning that there would be a penalty to pay for eating either half-raw or 'melting' meat. "A Chicken in Every Pot" airline chicken American bison & buffalo bacon bear beef beef Stroganoff beef Wellington beefalo blood booya brawn Brunswick stew burgoo carpetbag steak Chateaubriand chicken chicken a la King chicken & waffles chicken burgers chicken cacciatora chicken chasseur chicken Cordon Bleu chicken Francese chicken franks chicken fried steak chicken Kiev chicken Marengo chicken nuggets chicken parm chicken salad chicken sandwich (fast food) chicken Tartare chicken tikka masala chicken Vesuvio chicken Wellington Christmas goose city chicken confit coq au vin corn dogs & Pronto Pups corned beef coronation chicken country captain chicken crab croquettes cube steak deep fried turkey deer donkers dormice duck duck a l'orange finger steaks foie gras frankfurters fried chicken goats gravy Guinea fowl ham head cheese horsemeat hot dogs Irish stew Jamaican Jerk jambalaya jerky kebabs King Ranch chicken Kobe beef lamb lamb & mint Lebanon balogna lobster London broil marrow bones meatloaf & meatballs minced meats & hash mincemeat pies mole poblano mutton mutton birds New England Boiled Dinner osso buco pastrami paupiettes Peking duck pemmican picnic ham pigeon pigs in Blankets porcupines pork & applesauce pork & beans pork & sauerkraut pork steak pot roast pulled pork Salisbury steak sausages of Italy scallops shark steaks sheep shrimp Sloppy joes SPAM spiral carved ham squab squirrel steak au Poivre steak Diane steak Tartare Swedish meatballs sweetbreads Swiss steak tempura Tetrazzini Toad-in-the-hole tri-tip steak Turducken Turkey & cranberry sauce turkey & dressing turkey bacon unturkey venison wiener schnitzel zoo animals According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descends from the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest print reference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [that is, until it falls apart].Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower.In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.